Fibrocystic Breast Disease

Fibrocystic breast disease (FCD) is a “nondisease” that includes nonmalignant breast lesions such as microcystic and macrocystic changes, fibrosis, ductal or lobular hyperplasia, adenosis, apocrine metaplasia, fibroadenoma, papilloma, papillomatosis, and other changes. Atypical ductal or lobular hyperplasia is associated with a moderate increase in breast cancer risk. CLINICAL Tender breasts Nodular areas Dominant mass Thickening …

Candida Albicans Infection

Infection caused by the species of the genus Candida, mainly Candida albicans. Candida species are ubiquitous. They are the most common fungal pathogens affecting mankind. Cutaneous candidiasis comprises superficial Candida infections of the skin and mucosal membranes. ETIOLOGY The most common cause of cutaneous candidiasis is Candida albicans. RISK FACTORS Risk factors that allow Candida …

Peyronie’s Disease

Peyronie’s disease is an abnormal curvature and shortening of the penis during an erection. This is caused by scarring of the tunica albuginea of the corpora cavernosa. Peyronie’s disease occurs in approximately 1% of men. It is commonly seen between the ages of 45 and 60 yr. CAUSE Specific cause is unknown. It is believed …

Cervical Cancer

DEFINITION Vulvar cancer is an abnormal cell proliferation arising on the vulva and exhibiting malignant potential. The majority are of squamous cell origin; however, other types include adenocarcinoma, basal cell carcinoma, sarcoma, and melanoma. EPIDEMIOLOGY & DEMOGRAPHICS INCIDENCE: 2.2 cases per 100,000 persons PREVALENCE: Vulvar cancer is uncommon. It comprises 4% of malignancies of the …

Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

DEFINITION PID is a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the upper genital tract including a combination of any of the following: ● Endometritis, salpingitis , tuboovarian abscess, or pelvic peritonitis ● Resulting from an ascending lower genital tract infection ● Not related to obstetric or surgical intervention PHYSICAL FINDINGS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION ● Lower abdominal …

Bowel Strangulation

What is Bowel Strangulation? Bowel Strangulation is a pathological condition in which the intestines tend to get trapped in a hernia and the blood supply to these trapped segments gets completely cut off resulting in the tissues in these trapped segments becoming necrotic which may lead to potentially serious life threatening complications if it is …

Anemia

Anemia is a medical condition that is very common in many people. It is a condition in which you do not have enough of the healthy red blood cells in your blood that could carry adequate amount of oxygen to your tissues. It is the most common type of blood condition that occurs in 3.5 …

Ischemic Heart Disease

What is Ischemic Heart Disease? Ischemic heart disease is developed when there is a constriction in the blood and oxygen supply to the heart because of infections or damages caused to the major heart blood vessels. With age plaque (or cholesterol deposits) gets deposited in the arteries (major heart blood vessels) resulting in reduced flow …

Hemorrhagic Stroke

Stroke, which occurs due to stopping of blood supply to the brain is often due to clot formation or bleeding in or around the brain. Clot formation in the arteries of brain occurs in ischemic stroke, while bleeding in or around the brain occurs in hemorrhagic stroke. Hemorrhagic strokes are comparatively less commonly seen and …